Saturday, December 25, 2010

Bluetooth Tester TC-3000C

TC-3000C Bluetooth Tester Key Benefits

Bluetooth Tester is Bluetooth V1.1, 1.2 and 2.0 Specification Compliant

RF and Protocol Combination Tester

Multiple Bluetooth RF and Baseband Measurement Functions

Bluetooth Protocol Analyzer Functions

Bluetooth Conformance Test

Supports Audio (SCO Link) Functional Testing

Device HCI Interface Options: USB, RS-232C and PCMCIA

Remote Operations Capability: TCP/IP (LAN), High Performance RS-232C or USB (TBD)

Software Easily Upgradeable via TCP/IP (LAN) or USB

Listed on Bluetooth Qualified Products List (QPL) as a Development Tool

CE Compliant: EN61010-2001, EN61326,A2:2001, EN61000-3-2, 2000, EN61000-3,A1:2001

Concentric Technology Solutions is your one source for RF Shield Boxes, RF Enclosures and Bluetooth Testers. CTS is your answer to your testing needs for off-the-shelf RF Shield Box, RF Enclosure, or powerful Bluetooth Tester when you need a power packed Bluetooth Tester to perform a complete compliance test for qualifying your design or just need to do a simple go-no-go test at a competitive price. If you're short on budget, start with the basic Bluetooth Tester which starts at about $12K and software upgradeable to full compliance testing power at under $24K.

CTS can provide a customized integrated RF Shield Box or RF Enclosure Test Solution for manual or automatic testing at an off-the-shelf solution price. Many companies make RF Shield boxes, RF Enclosures or DUT fixtures but only CTS bridges the gap by providing a complete integrated RF Shield Box or RF Enclosure testing solution for providing the RF shielding needed for repeatability within your budget and schedule.

LEARN MORE about RF Shield Boxes, RF Enclosures, Custom Test Fixtures and Bluetooth Testing solutions from CTSCORP-USA. We have the right solution at the right price.

Portable infrared analyser

Future regulations will, undoubtedly, focus on ways to improve accuracy and repeatability. One of the most obvious methods is the trend towards infrared and ultraviolet measurement technologies. Infrared, due to lower costs and more practical manufacturing methods will be more common. Not all gas components are optically active. One of the major exceptions is oxygen, and alternative methods will always be necessary in this case. There are enough means of measuring oxygen concentrations relatively accurately thanks to medical research anyway. The most common form of infrared analysis is the Non-Dispersive InfraRed. These sensors operate on the principle that a gas will absorb infrared radiation of a specific wavelength. Basically, it measures how much of a particular wavelength of light is absorbed over a set distance and relates this to the concentration of a particular gas. The practice is, naturally, slightly less simple due to various factors such as pressure and temperature effects as well as the non-linear response of such measurements in general.

The latest result is the portable infrared analyser. Infrared analysers were always bulky and expensive instruments requiring temperature-regulated enclosures and humidity control. Now it is possible to produce such an instrument in portable form and make this technology truly transportable. Instead of temperature and humidity control, there are measurement and electronic compensation of these factors, and such instruments can be made modular to allow the addition of extra components as it becomes necessary. Thus we have an analyser using the most modern technology at a fraction of the cost of earlier infrared fixed systems, yet retaining the accuracy associated with this technology. Particularly valuable for carbon monoxide and sulphur dioxide measurement (CO and SO2), it is also widely used for carbon dioxide and hydrocarbons such as methane, which are otherwise very difficult to measure.

It is still not possible to pull yourself up by your own bootstraps! To use this type of instrument for stack testing requires the use of a high-quality sample conditioning system including an appropriate heated hose. A portable infrared analyser is just as susceptible to fogging of the optics due to condensation as its fixed brethren. Without a sample conditioner there is no hope of producing reliable and repeatable results, regardless of the quality of the instrument. Such a system will keep the sample gas at a temperature above the dew-point until it reaches a special cooler, usually a Peltier element. Here the sample is cooled quickly and the resulting water removed rapidly by a peristaltic or other pump. This prevents the soluble components from being absorbed by the moisture and also ensures that no water can penetrate the analyser system. No water is perhaps an exaggeration. It is never possible to remove 100 % of the water, but, provided the Peltier element is the coldest part of the system, there can be no condensation formed due to the low vapour pressure at points downstream of here.

This type of system used as a stack monitor will also have to reach an equilibrium state before use. In practical terms, this means that the system will have to run for about 30 minutes until it reaches a stable internal temperature before being used for measurement. This temperature will then be taken as the "zero" for all following measurements and provides a known baseline. This effect will be exaggerated in areas where air conditioning or building heating are in general use. The instrument will have to reach the temperature of the surroundings before use. In extreme cases it will be necessary to heat the casing of the portable infrared analyser to ensure that no condensation is possible inside the unit. The link will lead you to a page containing some tips for use of an infrared analyser.

Nevertheless, this represents a vast breakthrough in the accuracy of portable measurement technology, being specially suited to EPA compliance testing and the measurement of carbon dioxide and methane or other hydrocarbons. Infrared measurements of NOx and CO are also presently possible, although it is not really possible to measure NO2 directly with infrared technology.

Such instruments are now available for use when needed and a description of a portable infrared flue gas analyzer can be found by following the link.

Wednesday, October 20, 2010

O2 Oxygen, Single Channel, Table Top

Oxygen Analyzer for medical patient use and research with FDA 510K and CE 0197 approval.

The Model O2 is a versatile research grade oxygen analyzer for measuring 5-100% oxygen concentrations. The unit includes an integrated gas sampling pump, flow controller, bright LED display for oxygen concentration and status indication, touch panel controls for ease of operation, 0-1Volt DC analog and a terminal strip with relay outputs and a 4-20ma analog output, a separate digital RS-232 output, and LEUR type front panel connection for response times. The front panel allows control of flow, alarm set-points, calibration, and other user features. The Model O2 has US FDA 510K and CE 0197 MDD clearances for human medical use and can also be used in research and other applications. Oxigraf OxiSoft software is also included with the unit for computer display and data logging under windows 2000 and XP.

Item # 07-0180, Model O2iM Oxygen Deficiency Monitor

The Oxigraf O2iM may be the oxygen safety monitor you need to avoid an oxygen depletion hazard.

You want a rock-solid and immediate oxygen alarm for concentration less than 19.5% in the event of a cryogenic spill leading to rapid displacement of breathing air.

You also want an end to frequent recalibration or replacement of oxygen sensors, high maintenance of sampling systems, false alarms, and failure to alarm.

Tunable Diode Laser Spectroscopy
The Oxigraf O2iM is the next generation oxygen deficiency (or oxygen enrichment) monitor. Laser diode absorption spectroscopy assures stable, long-life oxygen measurement: there are no electrochemical cells to replace or paramagnetic sensors to recalibrate. The laser diode, derived from high reliability telecommunications VCSEL (vertical cavity surface emitting laser) diode technology, is rated for more than 100,000 hours mean time to failure. The laser diode is thermally and electronically tuned to measure the absorption of oxygen at 763 nm, and also periodically measures the background to provide an automated zero. Pressure and temperature corrections are made to yield the correct oxygen concentration as the weather changes.

Insensitivity to Movement
The Oxigraf technology has no moving parts, in contrast to paramagnetic technology. Laser diode technology will have no false alarms due to equipment vibration, mechanical accidents, or even earthquakes. Your oxygen deficiency detector should be as stable as a rock.

Fast Response
You shouldn't have to worry about a potential oxygen deficiency hazard in your facility any more. Blackout from lack of oxygen will cause a fall and possibly more serious consequences. Oxygen deficiency needs to be annunciated before the first breath. The Oxigraf Safety Monitor responds in less than a second. The transit time of the gas sample through the sampling tube may be 1 second per meter of sampling tube. To respond within 5 seconds, an oxygen alarm monitor with a 1 second response time would need to be placed within 4 meters of the potential hazard. Electrochemical sensors may incorporate long averaging times, 20 or more seconds, for large, abrupt changes in oxygen concentration. Laser diode technology offers short response times to meet your safety requirements.

Now Standard from Oxigraf - Auto-Calibration
Auto Calibration is now standard for the absolute highest accuracy and the ultimate in ease of maintenance of your Oxigraf oxygen deficiency monitor. Connect to a cylinder of calibration gas or run tubing to a space where ambient air is known. Set the calibration interval to your specifications, and you will never need to worry about routine calibration maintenance.

Accuracy with Helium/Nitrogen Mixtures

You don't need a false oxygen alarm situation. It is important that the oxygen concentration measurement be correct irrespective of the foreign gas. Some electrochemical sensors have been found to be inaccurate when helium gas dilutes the oxygen, where a helium spill is the hazard to be detected. The false positive reading was about 3%, the electrochemical sensor reading 19.5% for an actual concentration of 16.6%. The Oxigraf sensor is accurate to ±0.2% with admixtures of noble gases, hydrocarbons, fluorocarbons, CO2, and N2O among other gases tested.

The following paragraph is the abstract of a DOE paper on the subject. An Oxigraf Model O2 analyzer for was used as the reference standard for the test to evaluate various ODM units that were in use at the time by DOE facilities. This was just prior to the introduction of the Oxigraf Model O2iM, so a laboratory version was used for the testing.

Investigation of personal and fixed head Oxygen Deficiency Hazard Monitor performance for Helium Gas.

On May 14, 2001, the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLAB) conducted a planned liquid helium release into its accelerator tunnel to study the effectiveness of the JLAB facility to vent the helium and therefore limit the oxygen deficiency hazard (ODH). During the test, it was discovered that a wide range of various oxygen deficiency monitors, of different manufacturers, were providing substantial conflicting measurements of the true oxygen level where health effects are of concern. Yet, when tested separately with nitrogen gas as the diluting gas into air, the same models performed very well. This problem, which is associated with helium displacement of air, was found for both personal oxygen monitors and fixed installation monitors from many different manufacturers. By informing other facilities of its findings, JLAB became aware this problem also exists among other national laboratories and facilities. Many manufacturers do not have data on the effects of helium displacing air for their devices. Some manufacturers have now duplicated the test results conducted at JLAB. Since both fixed installation and personal oxygen monitors have become standard safety device in many research facilities and industries in the United States and abroad, it is important that these facilities are aware of the problem and how it is being addressed at JLAB. This paper discusses the methods, procedures and materials used by JLAB to qualify its ODH sensors for helium. Data and graphs of JLAB's findings are provided.

You may find a summary of the above study published by the Brookhaven National Laboratory at lessons learned: Oxygen Monitoring System did not recognize a potentially hazardous situation for information on the publisher, visit the website of the Brookhaven SBMS office.

Sample Flow Monitor
The Oxigraf O2iM fixed position oxygen depletion monitor includes a sampling pump, hydrophobic filter, and flow sensor. The microprocessor controller maintains the flow at a constant value. Any flow blockage or pump failure is reported as a low flow fault. Filter impedance can also be measured to indicate a need for filter maintenance. Thus remote monitoring of the flow system is enabled.

Multiport Sampling
Now optional on the O2iM safety monitor is multiport sampling. Up to four (4) sample locations can be monitored by a single O2iM unit through an internal sample port multiplexer. The O2iM will automatically sample and switch sample input ports and internal valves and fittings are added to the standard housing equipped with the 5-relay board option which contains the required circuitry for this feature.

Temperature, Pressure and Humidity
An error budget must be established for oxygen safety monitors. Humidity changes can cause a large variation in the oxygen measurement. A hot, wet day relative humidity of 50% at 37ºC (99ºF) corresponds to an absolute humidity of 3.2%. Such a water vapor dilution would cause a variation from the cold, dry air oxygen concentration of 20.9 to 20.2%, a change of 0.7%. If 19.5% is to be the alarm value, then variations from all other sources must be substantially less than 0.7% (the difference between 19.5 and 20.2%).

Therefore, temperature and pressure corrections are important. An oxygen sensor which measures oxygen partial pressure instead of concentration would report an oxygen variation of 2% with a 10% variation in barometric pressure. The Oxigraf sensor is corrected to within ±0.2% over pressure changes of 50% and temperature changes from 0 to 50ºC.

Remote Display
Your safety is assured when you have both local and remote indication of oxygen deficiency. Oxigraf offers advanced communication capabilities with the Safety Monitor giving you options in setting up your oxygen alarm system.
  • RS-232 & RS-485 (Modbus) communication on our Enhanced Relay Board option
  • Sealed Box multi-channel status indicator.
  • Hazardous Area LED multi-color status indicator.
  • Control Room LED multi-light status indicator.
  • Rack-Mount LED multi-light status indicator.
Two-way communication gives both remote monitoring and control. A central computer system can monitor every oxygen monitor in your facility for oxygen concentration, alarms, flow and system status. The central system can also control passwords, set alarm levels and initialize each monitor independently. Another advantage of a central control is what we call "remote maintenance". A major cost of oxygen deficiency monitors is the requirement for periodic maintenance and recalibration. With remote maintenance, site service and recalibration are no longer required to be periodic. Any system, power, flow or measurement faults will be flagged on a remote display, and service can be performed on an as-needed basis.

RS-232 & RS-485 (Modbus) communication
Two-way communication gives both remote monitoring and control. A central computer system can monitor every oxygen monitor in your facility for oxygen concentration, alarms, flow and system status. The central system can also control passwords, set alarm levels and initialize each monitor independently. Another advantage of a central control is what we call "remote maintenance". A major cost of oxygen deficiency monitors is the requirement for periodic maintenance and recalibration. With remote maintenance, site service and recalibration are no longer required to be periodic. Any system, power, flow or measurement faults will be flagged on a remote display, and service can be performed on an as-needed basis.

Unit Security - Locks and Code Access
As delivered, the oxygen depletion detector comes with latches on the door to allow servicing of internal components. It can be made more secure by bolting the door closed. For additional security, the Oxigraf ODM enclosure can be locked closed with a padlock. Beyond locking the internal components, the key panel can be disabled to restrict operation control. Entry of the proper password will allow service personnel to perform any required calibration or other maintenance operations.

Battery Backup During Power Interruption
An optional internal battery and charging system will maintain operation of each oxygen deficiency monitor for one hour following a power failure. This optional feature will continue to give you the full protection of the ODM, including alarm power and any remote indicator lights.

The O2iM unit can be fitted with a Z-Purge system and allows the unit to be used in Class 1 Div 2 hazardous area. The purge requires a nitrogen gas source for inerting purging of the housing and the O2iM housing adds a purge indicator and purge gas regulator with remote indication of purge status on a relay output.

Series 2000 Percent Oxygen Analyzer

System Description
The Series 2000 Percent Oxygen Analyzer is a microprocessor-controlled instrument that can be supplied with oxygen measuring ranges from 0-0.5% to 0-100%. Single and three range instruments are available. Autoranging is a standard feature on all three range analyzers. The Series 2000 Percent Oxygen Analyzer is powered from 115/230 VAC, 50-60Hz, or 18- 32 VDC with optional battery backup available for certain models. Oxygen values are displayed continuously on an easy-to read, 0.4" (10.2 mm) high, 4-1/2 digit liquid crystal display (LCD). The instrument can be purchased in a variety of mechanical configurations ranging from a general purpose, portable device, to a NEMA 7 (explosion proof) system. The electronics enclosure used for the portable and panel mounted versions is made from durable polycarbonate and, together with the gasketed seals, is rated watertight NEMA 4X (IP66). The gas inlet and outlet connections on the sensor housing are quick connect types. One-quarter inch stainless steel compression fittings are available upon request.

The Series 2000 Percent Oxygen Analyzer features a patented, extended life oxygen sensor with EES (enhanced electrolyte system) . This sensor provides exceptional performance,accuracy, and stability. For applications where carbon dioxide is present in the sample gas, the EES retards passivation of the sensor anode by allowing the products of oxidation to dissolve in the electrolyte. In effect, the sensor is renewed continuously, resulting in an increase in sensor life even if exposed to limited amounts of carbon dioxide. In addition, the enhanced mechanical design of the sensor ensures longer life, and virtually eliminates leakage of electrolyte, a nagging (and expensive) problem associated with sensors that require periodic electrolyte maintenance.

The eloquence of the Series 2000 Percent Oxygen Analyzer is its ease of use. The front panel contains five switches that provide access to the instrument’s settings. Each analyzer is equipped with three oxygen alarm relays and one status alarm relay as standard equipment. All four relays are Form C (SPDT) types rated at 10 amps at 115/230 VAC and 30 VDC. Each relay is user configurable for fail-safe operation. In addition to the alarm relays, the analyzer is equipped with a built-in audible alarm, as well as three front panel LEDs for visual indication of an alarm condition.

Learn about about sample system handling for oxygen and carbon dioxide analyzers

The Series 2000 Percent Oxygen Analyzer comes equipped with two analog outputs, 4-20 mADC and 0-2 VDC, for use with recorders, dataloggers, etc. For enhanced communications, the Series 2000 Percent Oxygen Analyzer can be configured with optional RS-232C or RS-485 serial communications. For multiple point installations, the RS-485 format is capable of sending digital signals over greater distances, and controlling each monitor using the same communication channel.

Oxygen Analyzer Sensor Types

Today's oxygen analyzers use one of a several types of oxygen sensors. As industrial process applications call for improved measurement accuracy and repeatability, users of oxygen analyzers are also demanding oxygen analyzers that require a minimum of maintenance and calibration. To this end, users of oxygen analyzers are encouraged to evaluate the merits of a particular oxygen sensor type in context to the application for which it is intended. There is no one universal oxygen analyzer type.

The synoptic review of the various gas phase oxygen sensors provided below should be used in conjunction with information gathered from manufacturers of oxygen analyzers. This combination will help to ensure the selection of the right sensor type for the application under consideration.

Oxygen Analyzer with Ambient Temperature Electrochemical Oxygen Sensors.
Electrochemical-Oxygen Analyzer:

The ambient temperature electrochemical sensor, often referred to as a galvanic sensor, is typically a small, partially sealed, cylindrical device (1-1/4” diameter by 0.75” height) that contains two dissimilar electrodes immersed in an aqueous electrolyte, commonly potassium hydroxide. As oxygen molecules diffuse through a semi-permeable membrane installed on one side of the sensor, the oxygen molecules are reduced at the cathode to form a positively charge hydroxyl ion. The hydroxyl ion migrates to the sensor anode where an oxidation reaction takes place. The resultant reduction/oxidation reaction generates an electrical current proportional to the oxygen concentration in the sample gas. The current generated is both measured and conditioned with external electronics and displayed on a digital panel meter either in percent or parts per million concentrations. With the advance in mechanical designs, refinements in electrode materials, and enhanced electrolyte formulations, the galvanic oxygen sensor provides extended life over earlier versions, and are recognized for their accuracy in both the percent and traces oxygen ranges. Response times have also been improved. A major limitation of ambient temperature electrochemical sensors is their susceptibility to damage when used with samples containing acid gas species such as hydrogen sulfide, hydrogen chloride, sulfur dioxide, etc. Unless the offending gas constituent is scrubbed prior to analysis, their presence will greatly shorten the life of the sensor. The galvanic sensor is also susceptible to over pressurization. For oxygen analyzer applications where the sample pressure is > 5 psig, a pressure regulator or control valve is normally recommended.

Paramagnetic Oxygen Analyzer
Within this category, the magnetodynamic or `dumbbell' type of design is the predominate sensor type. Oxygen has a relatively high magnetic susceptibility as compared to other gases such as nitrogen, helium, argon, etc. and displays a paramagnetic behavior. The paramagnetic oxygen sensor consists of a cylindrical shaped container inside of which is placed a small glass dumbbell. The dumbbell is filled with an inert gas such as nitrogen and suspended on a taut platinum wire within a non-uniform magnetic field. The dumbbell is designed to move freely as it is suspended from the wire. When a sample gas containing oxygen is processed through the sensor, the oxygen molecules are attracted to the stronger of the two magnetic fields. This causes a displacement of the dumbbell which results in the dumbbell rotating. A precision optical system consisting of a light source, photodiode, and amplifier circuit is used to measure the degree of rotation of the dumbbell. In some paramagnetic oxygen sensor designs, an opposing current is applied to restore the dumbbell to its normal position. The current required to maintain the dumbbell in it normal state is directly proportional to the partial pressure of oxygen and is represented electronically in percent oxygen. There are design variations associated with the various manufacturers of magnetodynamic paramagnetic oxygen analyzer types. Also, other types of sensors have been developed that use the susceptibility of oxygen to a magnetic field which include the thermomagnetic or `magnetic wind' type and the magnetopneumatic sensor. In general, paramagnetic oxygen sensors offer very good response time characteristics and use no consumable parts, making sensor life, under normal conditions, quite good. It also offers excellent precision over a range of 1% to 100% oxygen. The magnetodynamic sensor is quite delicate and is sensitive to vibration and/or position. Due to the loss in measurement sensitivity, in general, the paramagnetic oxygen sensor is not recommended for trace oxygen measurements. Other gases that exhibit a magnetic susceptibility can produce sizeable measurement errors. Manufacturers of the paramagnetic oxygen analyzer should provide details on these interfering gases.

Polarographic Oxygen Analyzer
The oxygen analyzer that features a polarographic oxygen sensor is often referred to as a Clark Cell [J. L. Clark (1822- 1898)]. In this type of sensor, both the anode (typically silver) and cathode (typically gold) are immersed in an aqueous electrolyte of potassium chloride. The electrodes are separated from the sample by a semi-permeable membrane that provides the mechanism to diffuse oxygen into the sensor. The silver anode is typically held at a potential of 0.8V (polarizing voltage) with respect to the gold cathode. Molecular oxygen is consumed electrochemically with an accompanying flow of electrical current directly proportional to the oxygen concentration based on Faraday's law. The current output generated from the sensor is measured and amplified electronically to provide a percent oxygen measurement. One of the advantages of the polarographic oxygen sensor is that while inoperative, there is no consumption of the electrode (anode). Storage times are almost indefinite. Similar to the galvanic oxygen sensor, they are not position sensitive. Because of the unique design of the polarographic oxygen sensor, it is the sensor of choice for dissolved oxygen measurements in liquids. For gas phase oxygen measurements, the polarographic oxygen analyzer type is suitable for percent level oxygen measurements only. The relatively high sensor replacement frequency is another potential drawback, as is the issue of maintaining the sensor membrane and electrolyte.

A variant to the polarographic Oxygen Analyzer is what some manufacturers refer to as as oxygen analyzer that uses a non-depleting coulometric sensor where two similar electrodes are immersed in an electrolyte consisting of potassium hydroxide. Typically, an external EMF of 1.3 VDC is applied across both electrodes which acts as the driving mechanism for reduction/oxidation reaction. The electrical current resulting from this reaction is directly proportional to the oxygen concentration in the sample gas. As is the case with other sensor types, the signal derived from the sensor is amplified and conditioned prior to displaying. Unlike the conventional polarographic oxygen sensor, this type of sensor can be used for both percent and trace oxygen measurements. However, unlike the zirconium oxide, one sensor cannot be used to measure both high percentage levels as well as trace concentrations of oxygen. One major advantage of this sensor type is its ability to measure parts per billion levels of oxygen. The sensors are position sensitive and replacement costs are quite expensive, in some cases, paralleling that of an entire oxygen analyzer of another sensor type. They are not recommended for applications where oxygen concentrations exceed 25%.

Zirconium Oxide Oxygen Analyzer
The type of oxygen analyzer that uses this type of oxygen sensor is occasionally referred to as the “high temperature” electrochemical sensor and is based on the Nernst principle [W. H. Nernst (1864-1941)]. Zirconium oxide sensors use a solid state electrolyte typically fabricated from zirconium oxide stabilized with yttrium oxide. The zirconium oxide probe is plated on opposing sides with platinum which serves as the sensor electrodes. For a zirconium oxide sensor to operate properly, it must be heated to approximately 650 degrees Centigrade. At this temperature, on a molecular basis, the zirconium lattice becomes porous, allowing the movement of oxygen ions from a higher concentration of oxygen to a lower one, based on the partial pressure of oxygen. To create this partial pressure differential, one electrode is usually exposed to air (20.9% oxygen) while the other electrode is exposed to the sample gas. The movement of oxygen ions across the zirconium oxide produces a voltage between the two electrodes, the magnitude of which is based on the oxygen partial pressure differential created by the reference gas and sample gas. The zirconium oxide oxygen sensor exhibits excellent response time characteristics. Another virtue is that the same sensor can be used to measure 100% oxygen, as well as parts per billion concentrations. Due to the high temperatures of operation, the life of the sensor can be shortened by on/off operation. The coefficients of expansions associated with the materials of construction are such that the constant heating and cooling often causes “sensor fatigue”. A major limitation of the zirconium oxide oxygen analyzer is their unsuitability for trace oxygen measurements when reducing gases (hydrocarbons of any species, hydrogen, and carbon monoxide) are present in the sample gas. At operating temperatures of 650 degrees Centigrade, the reducing gases will react with the oxygen, consuming it prior to measurement thus producing a lower than actual oxygen reading. The magnitude of the error is proportional to the concentration of reducing gas. The zirconium oxide oxygen analyzer is the “defacto standard” for in-situ combustion control applications.

Other types of oxygen analyzer types under development and in some cases being used for specific applications. They include, but are not limited to, luminescence polarization, opto-chemical sensors, laser gas sensors, et al. As these techniques are further developed and improved, they may represent viable alternatives to the existing technologies used in today's oxygen analyzer.

Key words-Oxygen Analyzer-Trace

Oxygen Analyzer -Percent

Oxygen Analyzer - PPM

Oxygen Analyzer - Percent

Oxygen Analyzer - Industrial

Oxygen Analyzer - Medical

Oxygen Analyzer - Diving

Oxygen Analyzer -Zirconium